Here are the hostages released by Hamas and those remaining in Gaza

Oriya Brodetz jumps onto his father, Avihai Brodetz, shortly after they were reunited in Israel. Oriya, siblings Yuval and Ofri, and their mother, Hagar, had been held hostage by Hamas. (Schneider Children's Medical Center/Reuters)

More than 100 hostages held in the Gaza Strip have been released since they were taken in the cross-border Oct. 7 Hamas attack on Israel.

Estimates for the total number of hostages seized in the attack that left at least 1,200 people dead in Israel have shifted over the course of the war. As of Wednesday, an estimated 107 living hostages remain in captivity in Gaza, according to numbers provided by Israel, but the country has not given the full basis for its estimates.

A deal between Israel and Hamas, mediated by Qatar, paused the fighting on Nov. 24 and allowed for the release of women and children in exchange for Palestinian women and teens in Israeli prisons. However, fighting restarted Dec. 1, with Israeli warplanes resuming strikes in Gaza.

During the pause, 81 Israeli citizens — including those who also hold citizenship from other countries — were released. Under the deal’s framework, every Israeli hostage freed would initiate the release of three Palestinian prisoners. Outside the framework of the exchange deal, 24 foreign nationals — who do not hold Israeli citizenship — were freed. Before the deal, some hostages — including two Americans — were also released or rescued.

The specific number of hostages who have died in captivity and the ages, genders and nationalities of those remaining in Gaza are unclear. Israel has estimated that the majority of those remaining have Israeli citizenship and are male. It’s unclear how many are members of the Israeli military. Two Americans — Abigail Edan, 4, and Liat Beinin Atzili, 49 — were released under the exchange deal. Fewer than 10 U.S. citizens are now held hostage, according to the White House.

While Hamas is thought to hold most of the hostages, some are believed to be held by other militant groups, including Palestinian Islamic Jihad, whose fighters also took part in the Oct. 7 attack. Israel blames Hamas for the deaths of some hostages and said three were killed in its own operations; Hamas says Israeli strikes have killed some hostages. The Washington Post could not independently verify either side’s claims.

Here is a list of the hostages released and what is known about those who remain.

Inside the hard, circuitous route to a hostage release deal

Number of hostages who have been freed: 110

Israel and Hamas initially agreed on a four-day deal that would pause hostilities to exchange captives. The deal, which began Nov. 24, was extended multiple times, allowing for the release of more hostages. The United States pushed for a broader deal that could also encompass the release of men and military personnel but negotiations broke down and hostilities resumed on Friday.

  • 78 Israeli and dual-national hostages were released as part of the exchange deal that began on Nov. 24. As of Thursday, Israel had released 240 Palestinian prisoners — all women or teenagers.
  • Three Israeli-Russian dual nationals were released as part of a separate agreement between Hamas and the Kremlin.
  • A total of 24 foreign nationals — 23 Thai and one Filipino — were released, which also came outside of the exchange deal.
  • Before the deal, at least five hostages were freed — four were released by Hamas, and one was rescued in an Israeli operation.

Who are the Palestinian prisoners Israel is prepared to release?

Number of hostages remaining in Gaza: An estimated 107

More than 240 people are thought to have been abducted on Oct. 7.

The Israeli Prime Minister’s office said Friday that 132 hostages remained in Gaza and that 25 of them were confirmed dead, bringing the estimated number of living hostages to 107. Israel includes hostages who were killed, with their bodies still held by Hamas, in its count.

The majority of the remaining hostages are Israelis or dual nationals, and male. Roughly eight Americans remain in captivity in Gaza, according to John Kirby, spokesman for the White House National Security Council. The only children on Israel’s list of remaining hostages are Kfir Bibas, who was 9 months old when he was abducted, and his 4-year-old brother, Ariel. Israel has said it is assessing Hamas’s claims that the Bibas children and their mother, Shiri, were killed.

Ten of the remaining hostages are foreign nationals, according to Israel. Levy previously described the breakdown as eight Thai citizens, one Nepali and one French-Mexican.

Names of Israeli and dual-national hostages released since the deal

Nov. 24: The day the pause began, Israel’s Foreign Ministry confirmed that 13 Israelis were released.

  • Doron Katz Asher, 34, German citizen
  • Raz Asher, 4, German citizen
  • Aviv Asher, 2, German citizen
  • Daniel Aloni, 44
  • Emilia Aloni, 5
  • Ruth Munder, 78
  • Keren Munder, 54
  • Ohad Munder, 9
  • Adina Moshe, 72
  • Hanna Katzir, 77
  • Margalit Mozes, 78, German citizen
  • Channa Peri, 79
  • Yaffa Adar, 85

What they missed: Freed Israeli hostages return to tragedy and joys

Nov. 25: Israel’s Foreign Ministry confirmed that 13 Israelis were released.

  • Noam Or, 17
  • Alma Or, 13
  • Shiri Weiss, 53
  • Noga Weiss, 18
  • Sharon Hertzman Avigdori, 52
  • Noam Avigdori, 12
  • Shoshan Haran, 67
  • Adi Shoham, 38
  • Naveh Shoham, 8
  • Yahel Shoham, 3
  • Hila Rotem Shoshani, 12
  • Emily Toni Kornberg Hand, 8
  • Maya Regev Jirbi, 21

Nov. 26: The Israeli Foreign Ministry listed 14 Israelis who were released.

  • Abigail Edan, 4, American citizen
  • Alma Avraham, 84
  • Aviva Adrienne Siegel, 62
  • Hagar Brodetz, 40
  • Ofri Brodetz, 10
  • Yuval Brodetz, 8
  • Oriya Brodetz, 4
  • Chen Goldstein-Almog, 48
  • Agam Goldstein-Almog, 17
  • Gal Goldstein-Almog, 11
  • Tal Goldstein-Almog, 8
  • Dafna Elyakim, 15
  • Ela Elyakim, 8
  • Ron Krivoi, 25, an Israeli-Russian citizen, was included on the list, although he was released separately from the exchange deal.

Nov. 27: Israel’s Foreign Ministry listed 11 Israeli hostages as being released.

All those released on Nov. 27 have dual citizenship — French, Argentine and German, said Qatar’s foreign minister, Al Ansari.

  • Eitan Yahalomi, 12, French citizen
  • Karina Engel-Bart, 51, Argentine citizen
  • Mika Engel, 18, Argentine citizen
  • Yuval Engel, 12, Argentine citizen
  • Sharon Aloni-Cunio, 34, Argentine citizen
  • Yuli Cunio, 3, Argentine citizen
  • Emma Cunio, 3, Argentine citizen
  • Sahar Calderon, 16, French citizen
  • Erez Calderon, 12, French citizen
  • Or Yaakov, 16, German citizen
  • Yagil Yaakov, 12, German citizen

Nov. 28: Israel’s Foreign Ministry said 10 Israeli hostages were released. One of the hostages was born in the Philippines, and some also hold Argentine citizenship, according to local media reports.

  • Tamar Metzger, 78
  • Ditza Heiman, 84
  • Noralin Babadilla, 60, born in the Philippines
  • Ada Sagi, 75
  • Ofelia Adit Roitman, 77, born in Argentina
  • Rimon Kirsht Buchshtav, 36
  • Meirav Tal, 53
  • Gabriela Leimberg, 59, Argentine citizen
  • Mia Leimberg, 17, Argentine citizen
  • Clara Marman, 63, Argentine citizen

Nov. 29: The Israeli prime minister’s office said 10 Israeli hostages were released. Two others with Russian citizenship were also released. Qatar’s and Germany’s foreign ministries said there were three German citizens released, but The Post could not confirm the name of one.

  • Gal Tarshansky, 13
  • Amit Shani, 15
  • Liam Or, 18
  • Itay Regev Jerbi, 18
  • Ofir Engel, 17, Dutch citizen
  • Yarden Roman-Gat, 35, German citizen
  • Moran Stela Yanai, 40
  • Liat Beinin Atzili, 49, American citizen
  • Ra’aya Rotem, 54
  • Raz Ben-Ami, 56, German citizen
  • Yelena Trupanov, 50, a Russian citizen, was included on the list but released separately from the exchange deal.
  • Irena Tati, 73, a Russian citizen, was included on the list but released separately from the exchange deal.

Nov. 30: Hamas released eight Israeli hostages, Israel’s military said.

  • Amit Soussana, 40
  • Mia Shem, 21, French citizen
  • Aisha Ziyadne, 17
  • Bilal Ziyadne, 18
  • Ilana Gritzewsky Kimchi, 30
  • Nili Margalit, 41
  • Shani Goren, 29
  • Sapir Cohen, 29

Names of foreign-national hostages released since the deal

Some other foreign nationals — mostly Thai — were also released during the pause in fighting.

Nov. 24: 10 Thai nationals and one Filipino national were released, the Thai and Philippine foreign ministries confirmed. Israel’s Foreign Ministry also listed the names of those freed.

  • Uthai Sangnuan, Thai national
  • Uthai Thunsri, Thai national
  • Buddee Saengboon, Thai national
  • Bancha Kongmanee, Thai national
  • Wichai Kalapat, 28, Thai national
  • Withoon Phumee, 33, Thai national
  • Mongkhol Phajuabboon, Thai national
  • Boonthom Phankhong, Thai national
  • Santi Boonphrom, Thai national
  • Natthawaree Moonkan, Thai national
  • Gelienor (Jimmy) Pacheco, 37, Filipino national

Nov. 25: The Thai Foreign Ministry said four Thai nationals were released, and they were named by a Thai public broadcaster.

Nov. 26: The Thai Foreign Ministry said three Thai nationals had been released. Their names were published by the Israeli Foreign Ministry.

  • Phonsawan Pinakalo
  • Surin Kesungnoen
  • Wichian Temthon

Nov. 28: Thailand’s foreign minister said he welcomed two Thai nationals who had been released. They were named by Israel’s Foreign Ministry.

  • Pattanayut Tonsakree
  • Owat Suriyasri, 40, father of two

Nov. 29: The Israeli prime minister’s office announced that four Thai nationals had been released into Israel. They were named by Thailand’s Foreign Ministry.

  • Paiboon Rattanin
  • Kong Saelao
  • Juckapan Sikena
  • Chalermchai Sangkaew

Israeli American mother released as husband remains in Hamas captivity

Names of hostages released or freed before the deal

Before the pause in fighting, Hamas released four hostages in two batches in October. Americans Judith Raanan, 59, and her daughter Natalie, 17, were released Oct. 20. Hamas said this was for “humanitarian reasons,” without elaborating.

Yocheved Lifshitz and Nurit Cooper, Israeli women in their 70s and 80s, were released Oct. 23, for what Hamas called “crushing humanitarian reasons.” Their husbands remain in captivity.

Israel said one of its soldiers who was taken in the Hamas incursion was released after a rescue operation in late October. The soldier was identified as Pvt. Ori Megidish.

Hostages reported dead: At least 33

It is unclear how many of the remaining hostages are still alive.

Israel said it has recovered eight bodies of hostages from Gaza, including several whose deaths it blames on Hamas and some who have been killed in its own operations.

  • Nineteen-year-old Cpl. Noa Marciano and Yehudit Weiss, a 65-year-old who was taken from Kibbutz Beeri, were “murdered in captivity,” Israel has said. After Hamas said Marciano was killed by an Israeli strike, the Israel Defense Forces said intelligence and a “preliminary pathological report” indicated that Hamas killed Marciano after an Israeli strike wounded her. The Post could not independently verify the claim, and Israel did not provide the evidence on which it based its assessment. Hamas militants have said some hostages were killed in Israeli airstrikes, but they have not produced evidence that corroborates their claims.
  • The IDF said the body of Ofir Tzarfati, who was taken captive on Oct. 7, had been recovered in Gaza and returned to Israel. The IDF said its special forces recovered the bodies of Eden Zakaria and Ziv Dado during an “operation” in Gaza. Zakaria, 27, was taken hostage during the Hamas music festival attack, and Dado, 36, was a logistics supervisor in the IDF’s Golani Brigade, the IDF said.
  • Israel has also said that its soldiers mistakenly shot dead three hostages — Yotam Haim and Alon Shamriz of Kibbutz Kfar Aza and Samer Al-Talalka of Kibbutz Nir Am — during fighting in Gaza.

Israel said there are 25 additional hostages it believes were killed whose bodies have not been recovered, including one who was killed in a rescue attempt. That number includes one Tanzanian worker. It said it has been updating its list of hostages killed based on confirmation from “intelligence and other measures.” Its list appeared also to include some whose bodies were taken into Gaza after they were killed in the Oct. 7 attack.

Levy, the Israeli government spokesman, has said that he is unable to immediately provide the exact breakdown but called on Hamas to release all hostages and bodies of hostages. Israel is “demanding Hamas release everyone … man, woman, child — alive or, unfortunately, dead,” he said.

Lior Soroka, Itay Stern, Shira Rubin and Kate Brady contributed to this report.

Israel-Gaza war

U.S. naval forces launched three additional strikes against Houthi forces in Yemen on Friday morning, targeting anti-ship missiles, according to National Security Council spokesman John Kirby. In the Gaza Strip, internet and cellphone communications were gradually restored, ending a week-long outage that kept most of the territory’s 2.1 million people cut off, amid a war and humanitarian crisis.

Pakistan launched retaliatory strikes Thursday on militants in Iran, its Foreign Ministry said, as tensions in the Middle East appeared to be spreading.

Oct. 7 attack: Hamas spent more than a year planning its assault on Israel. A Washington Post video analysis shows how Hamas exploited vulnerabilities created by Israel’s reliance on technology at the “Iron Wall,” the security barrier bordering the Gaza Strip, to carry out the deadliest attack in Israel’s history. Stock traders earned millions of dollars anticipating the Hamas attack, a study found.

Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip has a complicated history. Understand what’s behind the Israel-Gaza war and read about the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.